Bag class prototypes
Bag classes maintain unbounded collections of items potentially
containing duplicate elements.
These are currently implemented in several ways, differing in
representation strategy, algorithmic efficiency, and appropriateness for
various tasks. (Listed next to each are average (followed by worst-case,
if different) time complexities for [a] adding, [f] finding (via seek,
contains), [d] deleting elements).
implement unordered Bags via XPlexes. ([a O(1)], [f O(n)], [d
implement ordered Bags via XPlexes. ([a O(n)], [f O(log n)], [d
implement unordered Bags via linked lists ([a O(1)], [f O(n)], [d
implement ordered Bags via linked lists ([a O(n)], [f O(n)], [d
implement ordered Bags via Sleator and Tarjan's (JACM 1985) splay
trees. The algorithms use a version of "simple top-down splaying"
(described on page 669 of the article). (Amortized: [a O(log n)],
[f O(log n)], [d O(log n)]).
implement unordered Bags via hash tables. The tables are
automatically resized when their capacity is exhausted. ([a
O(1)/O(n)], [f O(1)/O(n)], [d O(1)/O(n)]).
implement unordered Bags via chained hash tables. ([a O(1)/O(n)],
[f O(1)/O(n)], [d O(1)/O(n)]).
The implementations differ in whether their constructors require an
argument to specify their initial capacity. Initial capacities are
required for plex and hash table based Bags. If none is given
`DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY' (from `<T>defs.h') is used.
Bags support the following operations, for some class `Bag',
instances `a' and `b', `Pix ind', and base element `x'. Since all
implementations are virtual derived classes of the `<T>Bag' class, it
is possible to mix and match operations across different
implementations, although, as usual, operations are generally faster
when the particular classes are specified in functions operating on
Pix-based operations are more fully described in the section on
Pixes. Note: Pix
`Bag a; or Bag a(int initial_size)'
Declares a to be an empty Bag. The second version is allowed in
Bag classes that require initial capacity or sizing specifications.
returns true if a is empty.
returns the number of elements in a.
`ind = a.add(x)'
inserts x into a, returning its index.
deletes one occurrence of x from a.
deletes all occurrences of x from a.
deletes all elements from a;
returns true if x is in a.
returns the number of occurrences of x in a.
returns a reference to the item indexed by ind.
`int = a.first()'
returns the Pix of first item in the Bag or 0 if the Bag is empty.
For ordered Bags, this is the Pix of the least element.
advances ind to the Pix of next element, or 0 if there are no more.
`ind = a.seek(x, Pix from = 0)'
Sets ind to the Pix of the next occurrence x, or 0 if there are
none. If from is 0, the first occurrence is returned, else the
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